Surface drip irrigation is widely used to irrigate perennial crops (trees and vines) and annual row crops. In surface irrigation water is distributed over the surface of soil. Lehrsch, ... R.E. Surface irrigation is the application of water by gravity flow to the surface of the field. Currently, there are different types of irrigation that make it easier for the farmer to compensate for the lack of rainfall and the supplies needed for plant growth. In areas requiring surface drainage or where the cultivated crops are sensitive to water logging, the furrows are effective in removal of excess water. Educating farmers about potential water loss from such practices, setting clear…. The pressurized method of irrigation like sprinklers and drip (Trickle) gives many advantages over the gravity surface irrigation methods in terms of water savings and yields. To minimize the environmental impacts of diversion, virtual irrigation water transfer should be encouraged. A surface irrigation event is composed of four phases as illustrated graphically in Figure 1. (For color version of this figure, the reader is referred to the online version of this book. In addition to detaching soil, the flowing water transports detached soil downslope, further contributing to the erosion process. For example, cultivation of sugarcane and rice crops in a semiarid climatic zone should be completely diverted to a humid climatic zone or where sufficient water sources are available. Irrigation is defined as the science of artificially providing water to the land in accordance with the “crop requirement” throughout the “crop period” for the complete nourishment of the plant. From: Encyclopedia of Soils in the Environment, 2005, E.A. 3.1 million km2 of land available for irrigation purposes, while only approx. The era of rapid expansion of large-scale public surface irrigation system that underpinned the Green Revolution is largely over. This form of surface irrigation is known variously as high-performance surface irrigation, precision surface irrigation or high-flow flood irrigation, and is becoming an increasingly popular alternative to pressurised systems in these times of rising energy costs. Khatri and Smith (2006) and Gillies (2008) identified this variability as a major physical constraint in achieving higher irrigation performance in furrow-irrigated fields. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. To improve the design of furrow and border irrigation systems (as well as contour irrigation for its similar application form), physically based simulation models have been developed in the last 30 years. There are many variations of irrigation methods and types of irrigation equipment. A USGA report recently said an irrigation system was as integral a part of golf course maintenance as the mowers used to cut tees, fairways and greens. These tools can be equally, if not more effectively, utilized in assessment and monitoring of watershed-related development studies. Where water is scarce, pipelines may be used, eliminating losses caused by seepage and…, …rely on simple flooding, or surface irrigation, as the principle means of irrigation. The three most common methods are basin irrigation, border irrigation and furrow irrigation. Ecuador surface irrigation was 663.9 thousand ha in 2000 - the single year for which the data is available at the moment. Increasing the flow rate increases the shear and carrying capacity. … https://www.britannica.com/topic/surface-irrigation, irrigation and drainage: Water application. Furrow irrigation efficiency is further compounded by the furrow-to-furrow inflow variability in both gated pipe and siphon tube operated systems (Trout and Mackey, 1988). Thus, without proper precautions and management, soil loss will occur from many surface-irrigated areas. Irrigation water supply mainly depends on the surface and ground water resources. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Conventional water transportation is mainly through clay-paved canals, channels, and ditches with substantial losses due to evaporation and leaching. The purpose of this article is to describe the irrigation methods primarily used for agricultural production. Covering the U-shaped channels increases water productivity even further, but to date this has not been widely adopted. Recent research on soil surface sealing under center pivots suggests that, rather than droplet kinetic energy alone, droplet specific power, a term that accounts for application rate in addition to kinetic energy, better predicts infiltration and, consequently, runoff. Fertigation: It is also possible to supply the nutrients to the crops through the pressurized system of irrigation popularly called as fertigation. It accounts 2.1 % in first phase and 6.9 % … For surface irrigation, PAM use is not only economical but probably offers the most promise for effective erosion control for most furrow-irrigated production systems. To ensure adequate wetting of the soil near their field or furrow outlet, those surface irrigation systems are designed and operated so that 20–40% of the added water runs off. Irrigation applies water to soil to improve crop production. Another method is sprinkler irrigation, in which water runs through pipes over or on the ground and is then sprayed onto the field. The soil infiltration characteristic more than any other factor serves to determine the level of performance or efficiency achievable from surface irrigation. Other surface systems on sloping fields, in contrast, have runoff. For example, high value crops such as tomatoes can be grown followed by double cropping on a long term rotation. Sushil Pandey, in Encyclopedia of Food Security and Sustainability, 2019. Trickle irrigation involves the…. Rain water harvesting and water shed management are other measures to conserve water. This process can be divided into a preliminary design stage and a detailed design stage. C.B. Mozammel Hoque, in Biotechnology for Sustainable Agriculture, 2018. When water is lifted from surface sources or underground sources by man or animal power, mechanical or electrical power and directly supplied to the agricultural land, then it is known as Lift Irrigation. In surface irrigation, as water flows across a soil's surface or advances down a furrow, it quickly wets relatively dry aggregates or clods in its path. Three major types of surface irrigation are level basin, furrow, and border strip. Reducing or managing runoff is the key to controlling soil loss wherever sprinkler irrigation or surface irrigation is practiced. In Surface Irrigation, water is applied and distributed over the soil surface by the help of gravity. Level-basin irrigation systems may have no runoff, thus no soil loss from the basin. It reduces outdoor water use by 30 to 40 percent. A level site is required for surface irrigation, in which the water is conveyed directly over the field in open ditches at a slow, nonerosive velocity. Controlling erosion from surface irrigation is a challenge, due to the requirement for overland flow and runoff, and to varying flow regimes and soil infiltration rates. can enable identification as well as introduction of genes (single/multiple) that can enhance water use efficiency as well as increase tolerance to water logging, soil salinity, or heavy metal toxicity. For both sprinkler and surface irrigation, off-site soil loss is often least where combinations of control practices are employed. This decrease in flow rate with distance reduces the furrow stream's shear and carrying capacity, at times leading to sediment deposition. Rainwater harvesting is the process of collecting, concentrating, and improving the productive use of rainwater, and reducing unproductive depletion such as runoff, evaporation, and seepage. Surface Irrigation is a kind of irrigation where gravity works its best. …generally suited to vegetables are surface irrigation and sprinkler irrigation. The soil acts as the growing medium in which water is stored and the conveyance medium over which water flows as it spreads and infiltrates. Figure 3. Water must flow across the soil during surface irrigation. Holzapfel, M.A. Effective sprinkler erosion-control techniques already exist and more are on the horizon. Irrigation … Furrow irrigation or its modified version viz. ­­Surface irrigation is arguably the least complex form of irrigation. One of these methods is called surface irrigation, in which the farmer disperses water over the land by either flooding it or running it down furrows, which are lanes in the field. 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