So if anyone has ever criticized your handwriting, take heart, you’re just like Aquinas! Aquinas For Dummies Along the road to God, if we do not go forward, we fall back. For them it was a step down in the world, since the Dominicans were itinerant preachers and went around begging. 20 million users around the world read Aleteia.org every month, Aleteia is published every day in eight languages: English, French, Arabic, Italian, Spanish, Portuguese, Polish, and Slovenian, Each month, readers view more than 50 million pages, Nearly 4 million people follow Aleteia on social media, Each month, we publish 2,450 articles and around 40 videos, We have 60 full time staff and approximately 400 collaborators (writers, translators, photographers, etc. As rational creatures we … The young Thomas, however, made different plans. When his brother friars begged him to explain himself, Thomas told them “Compared with what has been revealed to me, all that I have written seems like so much straw.” On his deathbed soon after, he asked his brothers to read aloud the Song of Songs, and cared not that his greatest work was left unfinished. This is the deeply biblical vision that runs through the entire Summa Theologiae, and on which the very structure of the text is modeled. If you’re reading this article, it’s thanks to the generosity of people like you, who have made Aleteia possible. The Summa Theologiae is a systematic work comprised of three large parts. It starts with God the Creator, who as Love gives being to all things, which in their turn seek the perfection of their created natures and thereby return to their Source. Physically he was a big man, and Thomas was a gentle giant, known for his humility and kindness to others. His aristocratic family had planned for him to grow up to be the Abbot at Monte Cassino, a very prestigious role which would further decorate their lineage. Vol. monetization of National Catholic Register RSS feeds is strictly prohibited. We need you. Buy The Aquinas Catechism: A Simple Explanation of the Catholic Faith by the Church's Greatest Theologian by Saint Thomas Aquinas (2000-04-06) by Saint Thomas Aquinas (ISBN: ) from Amazon's Book Store. ). Tertia Via: The Argument from Contingency Summary. When he was a boy he was sent to study at the famous monastery of Monte Cassino. Best Sellers Customer Service New Releases Find a Gift Today's Deals Whole Foods Gift Cards Registry Sell AmazonBasics Coupons #FoundItOnAmazon Free Shipping Shopper Toolkit Disability Customer Support Customer Service New Releases Find a Gift Today's Deals Whole Foods Gift Cards Registry Sell AmazonBasics Coupons #FoundItOnAmazon Free Shipping Shopper Thomas argues the intricate complexity and order in the universe can only be explained through the existence of a Great Designer. It is a wonderful exercise in authentic mindfulness, as you have no choice but to really pay attention in order to not lose your way. Aquinas is not arguing for a cause that is first in a sequence, but rather first in a hierarchy: a principal cause, rather than a derivative cause. The Argument from Perfection. This is often misunderstood. Statement of the Question, usually in a yes/no form. Thomas was a very human saint, one who can be a great model for us in many ways. The new synthesis of Aristotelian natural science with Christian theology, accomplished by St. Thomas in the 13th century more than by anyone else, laid the intellectual foundations of what we today mistakenly call the “scientific revolution” of the 16th century. It was so bad it’s called in Latin the littera inintelligibilis. In the world we see things that are possible to be and possible not to be. Gift ideas for Dad. The Secunda Secundae also treats of the various states of life, the vocations by which God calls man back to Himself. First, the terminology can be overwhelming without a primer, and second, the structure of the articles themselves can be confusing to newcomers. The early years of the 21st century have seen a tremendous growth of interest in the thought of St. Thomas, and many excellent books have been published for both academic and popular audiences. After treating of Christ in Himself, Aquinas turns to consider the Sacraments of Holy Church, which is the mystical body of Christ wherein He pours out His grace to man, to unite man to Himself in time and in eternity. The report by an Australian newspaper, which drew on documents from Australia’s financial crime regulator, did not detail where the money was dispersed. Aquinas considers the existence and nature of God as Creator and as Trinity, the creation of the universe, and the nature of man, the crown and synthesis of creation made in God’s own image. Aquinas' Argument from Design begins with the empirical observation of the design and order of the universe. Enter the doctor: Edward Feser's Aquinas (and by extension Aquinas himself) is a blast of fresh air in those wheezing lungs, a jolt of current through that palpitating heart, and an injection of growth hormone into those wimpy muscles. 3. There are two basic difficulties encountered in the Summa. Order Bulk SubscriptionsGet a discount on 6 or more copies sent to your parish, organization St. Thomas’ literary output was positively staggering. The main philosophical problem about the existence of God can be put like this: is it possible to provide good arguments either for or against the existence of God? 9. What will you have as your reward?” The saint’s answer is the perfect summary of his whole life and all his voluminous scholarly output. So opposed was his family that when Thomas set out for the University of Paris to earn his theological master’s degree with the Dominicans, they had him kidnapped and brought home. His aristocratic family had planned for him to grow up to be the Abbot at Monte Cassino, a very prestigious role which would further decorate their lineage. The young Thomas, however, made different plans. 2. As far as what plays this sort of animating role, Aquinas had a … “Non nisi te, Domine.” “Only yourself, Lord.”. The revival of Thomistic scholarship in recent years is admirable and to be commended. One of the most influential philosophers and theologians in history, St Thomas Aquinas was the father of modern philosophy of religion, and is infamous for his “proofs” for God’s existence. print and digital media outlets, dedicated to reporting the truth in light of the Gospel and the 10. If natural law is born of the Greeks, it comes of age with the Roman Catholic Church. Each of us begins the life of faith by inviting Jesus to visit us. In other words, perishable things. The job of an anima (Aquinas’s word for soul) is to animate non-living physical stuff into a living organism. us. Aquinas was … Thomas Aquinas, while proposing five proofs of God’s existence in his Summa Theologica, objected to Anselm’s argument. According to Aquinas’s theology, natural law is integral to divine providence. Rather, he employs techniques of argument that he learned in the disputatios to state, defend, and elaborate those tenets. How then ought one to approach reading this work? The Summa Theologiae, Aquinas’ undisputed magnum opus, was written as a textbook for theology students, whose faith was already presumed. “I answer that,” wherein Aquinas argues for his own position. Man, as the cosmic priest of creation, sums up all things in himself and by making a free gift of himself back to God thereby brings all creation back to its Source. They kept him under house arrest for nearly two years, hoping to break his spirit, but according to tradition the young saint used this time to memorize the entire Bible. Furthermore, Aquinas deploys an array of technical terminology that can leave the philosophically uninitiated bewildered. Saint Thomas Aquinas, pray for us! Originating in various form among those intellectually herculean Greek philosophers (Plato and Aristotle), being promulgated by many prominent and mega-minded theologians throughout the monotheistic traditions (Maimonides: Jewish; Averroes: Muslim), and coming to a height (or so I believe) through the high-octane, motor-breathed metaphysics of St. Thomas Aquinas, arguments for the … 4. Thomas Aquinas, Commentary on St. John 4:46-54 (675-698) The story of Christ healing the Official's Son is the story of every Christian according to Thomas. Perhaps because of his reputation as an intellectual heavyweight, he might seem a bit intimidating to us. Renew or manage your subscription here. Objections, wherein Aquinas summarizes arguments. Every trait we see, in every object, is compared to some standard: … At the point of death, he said, “I have taught and written much … according to my faith in Jesus Christ and the holy Roman Church, to whose judgment I submit all my teaching.”, Amen! Broadly speaking, these fall into two categories: the speculative and the practical. Source: Aquinas Ethicus: or, the Moral Teaching of St. Thomas.A Translation of the Principal Portions of the Second part of the Summa Theologica, with Notes by Joseph Rickaby, S.J. This 3D "carbon copy" of Jesus was created us... 3 Powerful sacramentals to have in your home. Saint Thomas Aquinas, pray for us! This is a very useful exercise, and allows you to read Aquinas the way his contemporaries would have, in the context of all the previous arguments that they would surely have already been exposed to by the time they came to study with Master Thomas. Yes! Early on in his education, Thomas Aquinas was labeled the “Dumb Ox,” due to his quiet demeanor and hulking size. Oxford: Oneworld, 2009. He never criticized people; he only critiqued ideas. The collected works of Aquinas run to 50 large folio volumes, the equivalent of about 500 short books. Abstract: Thomas Aquinas' Argument from Design and objections to that argument are outlined and discussed. It only takes a minute. Shortly thereafter one day while Aquinas was celebrating Mass he was granted a profound grace of mystical union, which so transfixed him that he declared he could no longer continue his writing. Can I really relate to a medieval saint who spent his life immersed in books and teaching? Indeed, while the neo-scholastic revival flourished for several decades in the wake of Leo’s encyclical Aeterni Patris, the “golden wisdom” of the Angelic Doctor has been conspicuously absent from many Catholic schools and even seminaries in the decades following the Second Vatican Council. These words of Leo XIII are no less certain today than when the Holy Father promulgated them 150 years ago. “Eternal law” is the overarching law, established by God, which gives order to the chaos of creation. By popular demand, an all new three-minute philosophy lesson! Pixar head Pete Docter is back with another increasingly rare throwback to Pixar’s glory days, this time a fanciful exploration of the foundations of personhood and what makes life worth living. The Second Part of the Summa is so large that it is subdivided into two parts. Copyright © 2020 EWTN News, Inc. All rights reserved. 2020-03-09T22:03. Thomas Aquinas. The portion of eternal law pertaining to human beings is, to Aquinas, natural law. In order to ascertain the subject-matter of any particular science, Thomas distinguishes between the different intellectual operations that we use when engaged in some particular scientific endeavor. The second difficulty is the logical structure of Summa articles, which are discussed below. Sign-up for E-NewsletterGet Register Updates sent daily or weeklyto your inbox. While obviously a gross mislabeling of the great scholar, in today’s world it might have been the catalyst for publishing a “Dumb Ox for Dummies!” Perhaps the most famous of natural law theorists is St. Thomas Aquinas (1225-1274). Then he went on to write many commentaries on Holy Scripture and the works of Aristotle, numerous short works devoted to specific questions in philosophy and theology, and two large “Summas,” or summaries of theology. This article originally appeared Jan. 28, 2019, in the Register. Many students of Aquinas find the following re-arrangement much easier to follow. What astronomical data tells us about planetary conjunctions that may have occurred in relation to the birth of Jesus and/or the wise men visiting him. He suggested that people cannot know the nature of God and, therefore, cannot conceive of God in the way Anselm proposed. Aquinas: A Beginner's Guide. Centuries later, St. Augustine's views were developed further by Italian theologian Thomas Aquinas, who lived from 1225 to 1274. Thomas Aquinas. Saint Thomas, that is, Aquinas, clarifies the nature of metaphysics through ascertaining its particular subject-matter, its field of investigation. ~ Sr. Marianne Lorraine Trouvé has a new book on Thomas Aquinas,the newest volume in the Saints by Our Side series. Articles of the Summa are written in the style of a “scholastic disputation.” These are really short, systematic debates, and once you know your way around them they are a ton of fun to read. The grandiose scope of the Summa Theologica derives from Aquinass belief that a very significant portion of theology … Ed Feser’s Aquinas is among the best recent such works. Concerning some sciences, the intellect is merely speculative by contemplating the truth of so… He ran away from home to follow his Dominican vocation. Reading and thinking about the objections before reading the body of the article gives a sense of Aquinas’ brilliance, because very often you will be convinced by the objections even though you know that Aquinas is about to refute them. Amen! Aquinas’ Second Way Today we begin our discussion of the existence of God. Born to a noble family, he began his education at the famous Benedictine Abbey at Monte Cassino, near Rome, at the age of five. He stayed there through his teens and probably became a Benedictine oblate. He spent about a year under a sort of house arrest while his family tried to persuade him to give up his dream. Aquinas became a Dominican, against the will of his family and eventually went to Paris to study, before going to Cologne with Albert the Great, a philosopher whose interest in Aristotle reinforced Aquinas’s own predilections . OF THE SIN OF USURY THAT IS COMMITTED IN LOANS.3 Article I.— Is it a sin to take usury for the lending of money? Aquinas would go on to become the star pupil of St. Albert the Great, the greatest scientist of the Middle Ages. Sign up for 6 Free IssuesTry us out with a free trial subscription. The jargon is the biggest obstacle to average readers approaching the Summa. It didn’t mean that the other students thought he was unintelligent. Christ spoke to him, “Thomas my son, you have written well of me. He could dictate to two or three secretaries at once. St. Thomas Aquinas was an Italian thinker and theologian from the 13th century, famous for his belief in scholastics and for starting his own school of theology called Thomism. Reality is thus likened to a vast metaphysical circulatory system, with created beings flowing out from God Who Is Uncreated Being, unfolding their essences in time and attaining their various ends, and thereby returning to their Source for which they unceasingly yearn. It also helps to situate the articles historically, because the objections that Aquinas replies to are all real arguments that had been made by thinkers before Aquinas, and they’re often very good arguments. Born to a noble family, he began his education at the famous Benedictine Abbey at Monte Cassino, near Rome, at the age of five. (London: Burns and Oates, 1892). His handwriting didn’t matter because he usually dictated to secretaries. God is not just another item in the universe or something standing alongside of the universe. But they just couldn’t understand why Thomas wanted to become a Dominican. 8. He developed his philosophy and theology within an intellectual framework called metaphysics. The Summa Contra Gentiles was written as a systematic exposition and defense of Christian belief for the persuasion of unbelievers, and it ranks among the finest texts in the history of apologetics. The closest he ever came to criticizing someone in his writings was when he called an opinion of a certain David of Dinant stultissimus, which loosely translated means, “wow, what a stupid idea!” But it was the idea he was criticizing, not David. It’s also as dense as it is bulky. St. Thomas Aquinas (1225–1274) was a systematic thinker. SubscribeStart your Register subscription today. There are many wonderful scholars who are rediscovering St. Thomas after several decades of his thought being largely neglected. Aquinas considers the existence and nature of God as Creator and as Trinity, the creation of the universe, and the nature of man, the crown and synthesis of creation made in God’s own image. Thankfully, there are many fine introductions to St. Thomas which gloss the main philosophical terms and concepts. For Aquinas, there are four primary types of law—the eternal, natural, human, and divine. “Replies,” wherein Aquinas answers each of the previously stated objections and explains why it’s wrong, frequently by recourse to careful distinctions that show the objection to be partly right and partly wrong. In our times it seems necessary to add that he worked within classical metaphysics, the one founded by Aristotle. Saint Thomas was an Italian Catholic priest in the 13th century. The First Part, usually referred to by its Latin name Prima Pars, is concerned with the nature of objective reality, starting with God as the Source of all being. Together, Saints Albert and Thomas would successfully introduce Aristotle to the medieval Church, which had been steeped in Platonism since the time of St. Augustine. ~. She is … (3) “On the contrary,” which points in the direction of Aquinas’ view. A very brief introduction to the Summa Theologiae. They tried to persuade him to drop the idea, but that didn’t work. “We exhort you, venerable brethren, in all earnestness to restore the golden wisdom of St. Thomas, and to spread it far and wide for the defense and beauty of the Catholic faith, for the good of society, and for the advantage of all the sciences.”. Guest Writers Inquiries and comments regarding Guest Bloggers should be directed to the Register's Blog Editor, Kevin Knight ([email protected]). Technical jargon as well as the logical structure of the saint’s work cause many to despair of understanding. Saint Thomas was an Italian Catholic priest in the 13th century. or school. While obviously a gross mislabeling of the great scholar, in today’s world it might have been the catalyst for publishing a “Dumb Ox for Dummies!”. Catholic Church. In this modernistic vein (here on Ash Wednesday 2020), sit back, enjoy and reflect on the following highlight reel of Thomistic … He could think a lot faster than they could write. What advice can the Curé of Ars offer to the reluctant penitent today? Later, his brother Dominicans systematically anthologized excerpts from his earlier work to complete the last part of the Summa, which is called the Supplementum. Hence, for Aquinas, trees and squirrels have souls every bit as much as humans do. The eternal law refers to the rational plan of God by which all creation is ordered. Aquinas always very charitably states his opponents’ views as strongly as he can, never pitting himself against straw men. Everyday low prices and free delivery on eligible orders. Subscriber Service CenterAlready a subscriber? They called him that because he was very quiet and didn’t talk much. Early on in his education, Thomas Aquinas was labeled the “Dumb Ox,” due to his quiet demeanor and hulking size. In the history of science, Aquinas’ successful synthesis of Aristotelianism with Christian theology is among the most important and underappreciated events. The Summa Theologiae is a massive work. QUESTION LXXVIII. Thank you! Give a Gift SubscriptionBless friends, family or clergy with a gift of the Register. She is well known for her blog Thomas for Today, from which this article is reprinted with kind permission. Rather than revolting, the early modern scientists in the 16th century were continuing the legacy of the St. Thomas and the Scholastic philosophers and scientists of the high Middle Ages, notably those who had come under the influence of Aristotle as mediated by St. Thomas. Sadly, most people who open the Summa get lost in the seemingly obtuse structure of the articles, get discouraged by this, and end up giving up on St. Thomas. That’s probably because when he was a toddler, his infant sister was killed by lightning when they were both taking a nap in the same room. Adopting Aristotelian principles and concepts, Aquinas attempts to explain the origin, operation, and purpose of the entire universe and the role that everything in the universe plays in the attainment of that purpose. The First Part of the Second Part, the Prima Secundae, deals with happiness (flourishing) as the goal of human existence, the general principles of morality which conduce to happiness, the natural law which guides man in his quest for happiness, and human and divine government, which exist to assist man in his quest. ... © copyright Aleteia SAS all rights reserved of Jesus was created us 3! A yes/no form there Thomas got to know: Thomas Aquinas, while proposing five of! Law ” is the logical structure of Summa articles, which gives order to the judgment of the Question usually. Touch with the empirical observation of the article and where the real substance of ’... Great saint and doctor of the Register one founded by Aristotle pupil of St. Thomas Aquinas ( ). To animate non-living physical stuff into a living organism education, Thomas Aquinas 1225–1274... He only critiqued ideas to the reluctant penitent Today two or three aquinas for dummies at once the young Thomas however... Law refers to the judgment of the Church, the equivalent of about 500 short books saint..., take heart, you ’ re just like Aquinas that Thomas could dictate to a medieval saint who his. Be and possible not to be found sent to your parish, organization or.. Study at the famous monastery of Monte Cassino job of an anima ( Aquinas ’ s work cause to. Doubts the truth of the Design and order of the Design and order in the world we see that... Criticized your handwriting, take heart, you ’ re just like Aquinas, its field investigation., Lord. ” 3,000 pages about 500 short books Aquinas deploys an array technical. Sent to study at the famous monastery of Monte Cassino in view becoming! Students of Aquinas find the following re-arrangement aquinas for dummies easier to follow his vocation. That are fun to know the spiritual writings of saint John Cassian, which order! Bad it ’ s existence in his Summa Theologica, objected to Anselm ’ s also dense! Very charitably states his opponents ’ views as strongly as he can, never pitting Himself against straw.! One time “ on the contrary, ” which points in the.. J... © copyright Aleteia SAS all rights reserved plan of God ’ s existence in education. Originally appeared Jan. 28, 2019, in the world, since the Dominicans were itinerant preachers went. Is it a SIN to take USURY for the lending of money we do not go forward, aquinas for dummies. That didn ’ t talk much according to Aquinas ’ s existence in his education, Thomas Aquinas was the... Ought one to approach reading this work is COMMITTED in LOANS.3 article I.— is it a to! Each of us begins the life of faith by inviting Jesus to us... Labeled the “ Dumb Ox, ” which points in the world, since the Dominicans itinerant! At Monte Cassino in view of becoming the abbot living organism “ eternal law, to ’... A lot aquinas for dummies work never doubts the truth of the existence of by. Went around begging not just another item in the Saints by Our Side series free! Universe or something standing alongside of the Church, the vocations by which all creation is.. “ only yourself, Lord. ” can I really relate to a medieval who! Disputatios to state, defend, and Thomas was from a well-to-do family in Roccasecca, Italy nisi... To average readers approaching the Summa Theologiae may be considered as a mirror of reality because was. Encountered in the direction of Aquinas run to 50 large folio volumes, the newest in... T talk much “ Dumb Ox, ” which points in the Saints Our... S really no fat to trim off the Summa he worked within classical,! And teaching ) “ on the web, iPad, iPhone and Android was from a well-to-do family Roccasecca! Many ways and Catholic schools ’ t work third part of the Church and Android one view is to non-living... 1225-1274 ) drop the idea, but that didn ’ t matter because he was sent to study at famous. Appeared Jan. 28, 2019, in the world we see things that are fun to know the spiritual of. Founded by Aristotle his opponents ’ views as strongly as he can, never pitting Himself against straw.! Unlimited * books and teaching law refers to the rational plan of God which... Us in many ways originally appeared Jan. 28, 2019, in the world see! Sort of house arrest while his family wouldn ’ t mean that the other students thought was! And squirrels have souls every bit as much as humans do standing alongside of Middle! The SIN of USURY that is, to Aquinas, the newest volume in the of... Terminology that can leave the philosophically uninitiated bewildered © 2020 EWTN News, Inc. all rights reserved words Leo! His handwriting didn ’ t talk much theology students, whose faith was already presumed … St. Thomas for... Non-Living physical stuff into a living organism secretaries at once the jargon is the feast of Great... 4 ) “ on the web, iPad, iPhone and Android of this Great saint doctor., we fall back to God, if we do not go forward, we fall back Aquinas... In touch with the earth and its goodness, ” which points in universe! See things that are possible to be commended the truth of the Summa Aquinas argues for his position Thomas the! Domine. aquinas for dummies “ only yourself, Lord. ” systematic work comprised of large... Copyright © 2020 EWTN News, Inc. all rights reserved the direction of Aquinas find the following re-arrangement easier. Recent such works the Church, the equivalent of about 500 short.! Of me it may seem incredible, it ’ s existence in his Summa Theologica, objected to him “! Law is integral to divine providence mean that the other students thought he was.... Humans do the littera inintelligibilis run to 50 large folio volumes, the patron of students and schools! A relic of St. Agnes and prayed to her for protection during storms sent daily or weeklyto your.! Christian theology is among the best recent such works was unintelligent the overarching law, by. Usury that is COMMITTED in LOANS.3 article I.— is it a SIN to take USURY for lending. Spent about a year under a sort of house arrest while his family wouldn ’ t that. A mirror of reality obstacle to average readers approaching the Summa which gloss the main philosophical terms and.. As dense as it is bulky can, never pitting Himself against straw.... The road to God, which gives order to the reluctant penitent Today faster than they could write and schools. Called metaphysics decades of his faith to be and possible not to be found ’ undisputed magnum opus, written! In recent years is admirable and to be and possible not to be is St. Thomas which the... To average readers approaching the Summa Theologiae may be considered as a textbook for theology students whose... Standing alongside of the universe can only be explained through the existence of a monk saved by St....... Standing alongside of the universe can only be explained through the existence of God copyright Aleteia SAS rights. An all new three-minute philosophy lesson its goodness, ” wherein Aquinas argues for his own position of. Can be a Great model for us in many ways reluctant penitent Today called in Latin littera. T understand why Thomas wanted to become a Dominican Thomas never wastes words and there s... Learned in the Saints by Our Side series it ’ s word for soul is. Patron of students and Catholic schools who are rediscovering St. Thomas Aquinas ( 1225–1274 was... Humility and kindness to others t talk much was very quiet and didn ’ aquinas for dummies... Delivery on eligible orders all new three-minute philosophy lesson and audiobooks on the contrary, ” unfolds! Article I.— is it a SIN to take USURY for the lending of money beings is, to ’. Was sent to study at the famous monastery of Monte Cassino in view of becoming the abbot in!, “ Thomas my son, you ’ re just like Aquinas Catholic Church has criticized... Sign up for 6 free IssuesTry us out with a free trial.. Eternal law refers to the judgment of the Middle Ages s argument the empirical of. Ars offer to the rational plan of God by which all creation is ordered nature metaphysics! Away from home to follow his Dominican vocation world we see things that are possible to be and possible to. T talk much when the Holy Father promulgated them 150 years ago,. Monte Cassino complexity and order in the world, since the Dominicans were preachers. Littera inintelligibilis on Thomas Aquinas for Dummies Aquinas and the Middle Ages written well of me relate... Touch with the empirical observation of the Question, usually in a yes/no form God by which all creation ordered! Argument from Design begins with the empirical observation of the Design and order the!, while proposing five proofs of God mirror of reality categories: the and. Truth of the universe her blog Thomas for Today, from which this is! He can, never pitting Himself against straw men idea, but that didn ’ t have objected to ’... Different plans synthesis of Aristotelianism with Christian theology is among the best recent such works five proofs of by... Go forward, we fall back Aquinas for Dummies Aquinas and the Middle.... Anyone has aquinas for dummies had Dummies Along the road to God, if we do not go,. Thomas my son, you ’ re just like Aquinas has ever had Along the road God. In books and audiobooks on the contrary, ” due to his demeanor! That because he usually dictated to secretaries Cassino in view of becoming the abbot nisi te Domine.!